How to make a Goblin

The Goblin Formula Roster
This page is dedicated to documenting all those that have taken the Green Goblin Formula

The following characters have been exposed to the Green Goblin Formula (or a chemical mixture that is structurally similar) 

1.  Mendel Stromm (Robot Master)
2.  Nels Van Adder (Proto-Goblin)
3.  Norman Osborn (Green Goblin)
4.  David Patrick Lowell (Sundown)
5.  Gabriel Stacy (Norman's son with Gwen Stacy, exposed indirectly through birth, also exposed to a second 'corrective' batch of the formula)
6.  Sarah Stacy (Norman's daughter with Gwen Stacy, exposed indirectly through birth)
7.  Lefty Donovan (victim of the Hobgoblin, deceased)
8.  Roderick Kingsley (Hobgoblin)
9.  Harry Osborn (the second Green Goblin)
10.  Phil Urich (the fourth Green Goblin, the sixth Hobgoblin and the Goblin Knight)
11.  Peter Parker (Spider-Man)
12.  Lily Hollister (Menace)
13.  Stanley Osborn (Harry's son with Lily, exposed indirectly through birth, however the mutated goblin gene has seemingly not transferred)
14.  Carlie Cooper (Monster)
15.  Doctor Dragovic
16.  The War Goblins (aka Goblin Soliders)

1.  Mendel Stromm (Robot Master)
The true creator of the Goblin Formula, Stromm is best described by Norman Osborn below:

After being extorted from the company he co-created and subsequently serving a 10 year prison sentence, Stromm returned to seek revenge on his old business partner Norman Osborn.  After Stromm attacked Osborn with robots, Norman soon retaliated by attempting to shoot him with a rifle.  Norman's shot missed, but the gun fire shocked Stromm causing him to suffer a heart attack that 'killed' him. 

One of the benefits of creating the Goblin Formula is using yourself as a guinea pig to test the experimental serums on!  Osborn was informed by his loyal Scriers that Stromm had tested the formula on himself, so years after Stromm's 'death' Norman exhumed his corpse and attempted to revive him.  It worked!  Stromm had been held in a state of suspended animation due to the formula, since the formula he tested on himself was not optimized his body had withered and decayed...but that didn't stop Norman from resurrecting him!

His withered body would be placed into a Darth Vader-like suit and he would go by the name Gaunt.  His suit would later be upgraded to a to a more domineering robotic suit...

Norman giveth and Norman taketh away...after resurrecting Stromm to use for his own maniacal purposes, Norman 'killed' Stromm (again) when he failed to defeat Ben Reilly.

Well, Norman giveth and Norman taketh and then Norman giveth again...We later found out that Norman didn't kill Stromm that day, however Stromm did suffer the loss of his memory.  Stromm would eventuallly end up in protective custody during the Superhuman Civil War and after he was attacked by Penance (aka Bobby Baldwin), it was Norman Osborn who helped nurse Stromm back into nice!

2.  Nels Van Adder (Proto-Goblin)
The second person (that we're aware of) to come in contact with a version of the Goblin Formula was an employee of Osborn Industries named Nels Van Adder.  Very little is known about Van Adder's background, except for the fact that he volunteered to have Norman Osborn experiment on circumstantial evidence suggests he's not very intelligent.  Also, the project Van Adder was assigned to at Osborn Industries was called Biogenetic Project Supreme, so he could have a scientific background.  The experimental formula turned him into a red, Goblin-like monster and he went on a murderous rampage.

The Stacy brothers, George and Arthur, rescued Norman from the clutches of the Proto-Goblin and the monster eventually escaped.  The whereabouts of Nels Van Adder are currently unknown.

3.  Norman Osborn (Green Goblin)
Norman Osborn was first introduced to the Goblin Formula via his partnership with Mendel Stromm.  After having Stromm imprisoned for embezzlement, Norman struggled to decipher Stromm's notes in order to recreate the formula.

So Norman did what anyone would do if they were struggling to resynthesize someone else's work, experiment on your subordinates until you're successful!  Enter the Proto-Goblin (see above).  Norman tested unoptimized versions of the formula on Van Adder, later, after a tussle with the Proto-Goblin, Norman found more of Stromm's notes.  That discovery was the watershed moment in Osborn's pursuit of Stromm's formula.  

Returning with Stromm's notes to the laboratory at his home, Norman creates the Green Goblin formula while diligently describing the procedure in one of his journals (this is important for future Goblins).

In a video-recorded message left by Harry Osborn to Peter Parker, Harry described his (possible) involvement in the creation of the Goblin Formula.  Harry claimed to have snuck into Norman's private lab and tampered with some of the chemicals therein, he postulated that the tampering led to the explosive reaction Norman endured.  To date, this claim is unsubstantiated.

As mentioned above, after the Norman mixed the appropriate reactants together the solution turned green exploded.  The Green Goblin was born!

Norman described the next few weeks that followed below.  Is there any medical record of his stay at the hospital?  What about blood samples?  There should be a paper trail that could link Norman to the Goblin...

Regardless, Norman would eventually be released from the hospital, smarter and stronger than ever.  Of course, with great strength comes great craziness when dealing with the Goblin Formula.  According to this flashback, Norman became the Green Goblin because it was his favorite color...

In agreement with the Norman Osborn timeline, Harry noted that Norman started 'to change' a few years before the events of Amazing Spider-Man #39.  It's reasonable to suspect that Norman's exposure to the Goblin Formula occurred a year or two before the Green Goblin and Spider-Man first crossed paths.  Did Harry not notice how the explosion Norman suffered coincided with this change in temperament?  If so, why not?  It seems like the most logical thing to blame Norman's behavioral change upon...

Even though Norman had been exposed to the Goblin Formula a year or so prior, he did not design the costume of his alter ego (which included his favorite color green!) until shortly before he and Spidey met for the first time.  A possible explanation for the gap in time between Norman's exposure the Formula and his creation of the Green Goblin persona could be attributed to Norman using that time to build his arsenal and establish his criminal underworld connections, which may have taken priority over the costume designing... 

We later find out that the Green Goblin has a deeper, darker root in Norman's psyche.  When his father forced him to 'face the darkness' as a young boy, Norman was terrorized by a Goblin-like creature.  He used that same fear he felt that night to project outwardly when he donned the Goblin costume years later.  

Norman's transition from shady businessman to costumed supervillain was facilitated by his involvement with a mysterious villain-producing Cabal.  Osborn was supposedly one of the Cabal's favorites until he went 'out of control with the Goblin persona'.  The specifics of how/when the Cabal helped engineer his rise to power are unknown.  Certainly they did not help create the Goblin Formula and may not have even helped him initially build his arsenal.  However, they may have contacted him shortly after he made his debut as the Green Goblin and attempted to unite the underworld.  But that is purely speculative.  

Eventually Norman built up his arsenal and filled his various hideouts across New York City with all sorts of weapons and spare costumes.  He was soon ready to unite the underworld and destroy Spider-Man!

What was Norman's ultimate reward for experimenting with the Goblin Formula?  A friend for life...

After a couple of attempts to lead the Avengers, Norman Osborn resumed his role as the Green Goblin and he attempted to once again unite the criminal underworld.

However this time he also changed his face/identity and operated under the name Mason Banks.

Peter Parker had 'died' and Otto Octavius became Spider-Man for a brief period of time.  Once Peter returned as Spider-Man, his first order of business was to stop the Green Goblin.  Otto Octavius and Sajani Jaffrey developed a 'cure' for the Goblin Formula, which presumably reverses all effects brought on by the serum.  Peter delivered the cure to Osborn via Spider-Bots, causing Norman to lose his Goblin-strength.

Norman also lost his 'insanity' as well (although we still think he's always going to be crazy).  He and Lily Hollister (aka Menace) were both depowered during Goblin Nation, so their spots on the Goblin Roster now have an asterisk since they aren't technically enhanced by the Goblin Formula anymore.

4.  Dr. David Patrick Lowell (Sundown)
Dr. David Patrick Lowell was a meek research scientist at Osborn Chemical Company, a branch of Osborn Industries.  After being passed over for a promotion, Lowell stormed into Norman's office to demand reconsideration.  Unfortunately for Lowell, the only thing his tirade accomplished was making Norman aware of the Photogenesis research and his compound's structural similarity to the Goblin Formula that Norman recently created.  Norman immediately fires Lowell and orders his research terminated.

Lowell attempted to salvage some of his work before it was tossed down the drain...

But during the struggle Lowell accidentally swallowed some of his chemicals...

And then he fell backwards onto a group of solar lamps...

The resulting explosion blew a hole in the building, and Sundown was born.

Lowell would begin terrorizing New York City, only to eventually give himself up to authorities.  Lowell served a prison sentence and was released after serving 10 years.

5. and 6.  Gabriel Stacy (The Grey Goblin) and Sarah Stacy
Gwen Stacy, former girlfriend of Peter Parker and victim of the Green Goblin, succumbed to a weak moment of passion and had an affair with Norman Osborn.  The affair led to the birth of twin children, Sarah and Gabriel, and the two inherited a portion of Norman's mutated genome.  Although endowed with enhanced strength and stamina, Sarah and Gabriel suffered from rapid aging as well.

Norman trained his two children and brainwashed them into believing that Peter Parker was their father.  Norman eventually instructed the duo to kill Parker.

Sarah eventually befriended Peter Parker and Spider-Man (she's unaware they're the same person), she was last seen working with French authorities and aiding in law enforcement.

Aside from the mutated 'Goblin genes' he inherited, Gabriel also took a corrective serum aimed at...well, you can read what Norman says below...

Gabriel eventually inherited the Goblin mantle and became the Grey Goblin.  Spider-Man was able to defeat him though, and in the process Spidey saved the life of his sister Sarah.

Norman's psychological manipulation of Gabriel did not stop at the Grey Goblin, later Gabriel donned the American Son armor as his psyche began to splinter into two personalities:  The heroic American Son and the villainous Gabriel Stacy.

7.  Lefty Donovan (victim of the Hobgoblin)
Under the direction of the true Hobgoblin, Roderick Kingsley, Lefty Donovan experimented with the Goblin Formula using Norman's journal.  Lefty has an experience remarkably similar to Norman...

Donovan experiences an explosion just like Norman did, this slightly debunks Harry's claim that his tampering with the chemicals created their instability and subsequent explosion.

Roderick plays the role for Lefty that Harry played for his father, dragging him from the explosion...

Lefty is then taken to the hospital where it takes weeks for him to recover, his face was badly disfigured.

Lefty wakes up in the hospital with a limited memory of recent events.  

After killing a hospital attendant and stealing his clothes, Lefty escapes the hospital and heads off to a Goblin hideout.

Lefty dons the Hobgoblin costume...

And after a battle with Spider-Man, Lefty is vaporized in a planned explosion set off by Roderick Kingsley.  Lefty has not been seen since.

8.  Roderick Kingsley (Hobgoblin)
Perhaps no one has approached their exposure to the Goblin Formula with as much deliberation as the true Hobgoblin, Roderick Kingsley.  Learning largely from mistakes of the past and Norman's journals, Roderick eventually decided to embrace the power provided by the Goblin Formula.  

Roderick uses robotic arms to mix the chemicals and pours them into a reaction vessel containing a permeable membrane in its core.  Roderick is wisely reducing his contact with the serum.

A bit different than Norman's first experience with the exploding formula, huh?

Roderick remained in the chamber for a bit longer than he had planned...

He eventually breaks out of the chamber, it appears as though his experiment did not go as planned...but it still worked!

Roderick immediately throws on his Hobgoblin costume...

And another worthy adversary for Spider-Man is born because of the Goblin Formula!

What was Roderick's ultimate reward for experimenting with the Goblin Formula?  A friend for life...

Of course, 'for life' does not mean forever.  Roderick was 'killed' by the now evil Phil Urich (who happens to be #10 on this list) as he ascended to the role of the new Hobgoblin.  

But Kingsley was not killed (in fact it was his brother who died at the hands of Phil Urich) and currently Roderick is enjoying life in Paris whilst brainwashing unsuspecting victims to become his Hobgoblin surrogate.

9.  Harry Osborn (the second Green Goblin)
There was a period of time in Harry's life when he felt it necessary to follow in his father's foot steps and become the Green Goblin.  To accomplish that, Harry decided to take the Goblin Formula and he took a page out Roderick's book when doing so.

Harry would 'die' soon after his exposure to the formula and his 'death' was attributed to this new version of the formula being toxic.  Years later when Harry returned to New York City from Europe, it was discovered that this version of the Goblin Formula did not kill him, rather saved his life. 

What was Harry's ultimate reward for experimenting with the Goblin Formula?  A friend for life...

10.  Phil Urich (the fourth Green Goblin, the sixth Hobgoblin and the Goblin Knight)
One of the more unique Goblins, the fourth Green Goblin began his run a hero!  During a botched robbery of a Goblin hideout, Phil Urich stumbles upon one of Harry Osborn's hidden caches.  

After digging through Harry's lair, a rat frightens Urich...

Urich crashes into the containment vat, spilling the Goblin Formula all over himself.

A high-tech mask helps to activate the formula he absorbed through his skin...

Urich begins to feel the power of the Goblin Formula...

Urich decides to use his newfound power for good, and a new heroic Green Goblin is born!

After his run as the heroic Green Goblin, Urich sought out help with group of similar-aged super powered people.

But Urich could not escape the curse of the Goblin Formula and soon after joining the self-help group, he began the downward spiral into a villainous Green Goblin persona.

His descent into darkness was highlighted with his attack on the original Hobgoblin.  Phil 'killed' Roderick Kingsley (#8 on this list) as he began to make power moves and become the new Hobgoblin.  Of course, that turned out to be Roderick's brother...

Phil would eventually be exposed publicly as the Hobgoblin by the Superior Spider-Man (ie, Otto Octavius inside Peter Parker's body).  

SpOck snared Urich and landed him in custody, however Menace (aka Lily Hollister) sprung him from incarceration.

Urich abandoned the Hobgoblin persona and was dubbed the Goblin Knight by his Goblin King, Mr. Norman Osborn.

11.  Peter Parker (Spider-Man)
Certainly the most unsuspecting and unwilling of the Goblin Formula roster, Peter Parker was exposed as part a plan devised by none other than Norman Osborn.  Peter received a free sample of toothpaste that he immediately utilized...

Later it is revealed that the chemicals Norman exposed Peter to contained traces of the Goblin Formula...

Peter was less than enthused when he found out...

What would Peter have done if Green Goblin had actually offered him the Goblin Formula?  See below.

12.  Lily Hollister (Menace)
Lily Hollister was concerned about her boyfriend Harry Osborn's mental state, so she began snooping through his belongings and found one of his old journals.  Using the journal she uncovered the location of one of Norman Osborn's Goblin hideouts, and she decided to go check it out in order to dig up dirt on Norman.

While going through Norman's hideout, Lily accidentally knocks over a set of vials filled with an experimental batch of Goblin Formula.  

She begins cleaning up the spill and absorbs the chemicals through her skin, causing her body to begin convulsing.

This new version of the formula allows Lily to consciously transform to the Goblin-like villain Menace, giving her increased strength and speed.

Harry soon found a way to revert the affects of this new Goblin Formula, he managed to administer his 'cure' with a little help from Spidey.  The result was Lily's incarceration and her father's loss of a mayoral election.

The effects of Harry's 'cure' were apparently temporary though and soon Menace was back and working alongside her former lover, Norman Osborn.  She was even integral in converting her friend, Carlie Cooper into the Goblinized-Monster!

But SpOck, along with help from Sajani Jaffrey, developed what appeared to be a more permanent 'cure' for the Goblin Formula.  Lily was administered this by Spider-Man as well.  In theory, Lily should no longer be the moment.

13.  Stanley Osborn (Harry Osborn's son with Lily Hollister)
The Goblin Formula story most similar to that of a soap opera belongs to young Stanley Osborn.  It all started when Harry proposed to Lily Hollister and she turned him down.  However, she did not turn down Norman Osborn when he asked her to join the family.

As part of plan to trick Harry into becoming a martyr for Norman's cause, Lily falsely informs Harry that he is the father of her unborn child.  Soon after, however, it is revealed that the child's father is actually Norman!

Months pass and Lily is ready to give birth to her child, Dr. Octopus is there to deliver the baby.  Doc Ock (amongst others) are interested in this baby because of the immense of amount of potential it would have (genetically speaking) being the offspring of two people altered by the Goblin Formula.

Spider-Man soon discovers that the baby is not Norman's, rather Harry's and by all indications Stanley does not have any of the Goblin-mutations in his genome.  The fact that Stanley appears completely normal is a surprise considering that both of his parents (Lily and Harry) have been exposed to the Goblin Formula.

Stanley and his father have since left New York City so that Harry can have a fresh start and avoid the mistakes he'd made in the past in regards to being a good parent.

14.  Carlie Cooper (Monster)
Carlie is the first love interest of Peter Parker to fall victim to the Goblin Formula.  Whilst investigating the circumstances around the Dr. Octopus's takeover of Peter Parker's body, Carlie soon found herself a hostage of her old friend Lily Hollister (aka Menace).

Lily handed Carlie and her journal (containing her notes on Otto's mind-swap) over to the Green Goblin.

The Green Goblin wanted to extract more information from his hostage, specifically he wanted to know who was behind Spider-Man's mask (recall that post-Brand New Day, the Goblin no longer knew that Peter Parker is Spider-Man).  So he threatened her with the Goblin Formula and when she wouldn't talk, the Green Goblin welcomed her to the Goblin Family.

Carlie became the Goblinized-villain, Monster!

Lily and Carlie bonded as Goblin-sisters, they even caused some mayhem together.

Carlie eventually sought out help from SpOck in order to cure her condition. 

A cure was eventually developed by both Sajani Jaffrey and Otto.  The cure appeared to work as Carlie reverted to her normal self. 

Lingering affects of the Goblin Formula remained (see her eyes below), but she appears to be mentally back to normal.  Her conversion to a Goblin was critical in the development of a Goblin Formula cure, which was also used on both Lily and Norman.  Carlie was critical in ridding the world of a few Goblins.

15.  Doctor Dragovic
Poor Doctor Dragovic experienced the same fate as many of Norman Osborn's "close allies"... that fate being that Osborn would eventually turn him into a grotesque monster for seemingly no good reason.  Doctor Dragovic was Osborn's face-altering surgeon that enabled Norman to change his identity at will.  In the panels below you can see that Dragovic not only performed the surgery but also stored and managed Osborn's face collection.

Excess is certainly one of Osborn's vices and Dragovic had warned the original Green Goblin that too many faces changes would render the muscles in his face useless and permanently damage the tissue.  But Norman did not listen, he was driven by the taunts that Spider-Man had sent his way, calling him a coward for not showing his real face.  The ever-loyal Dragovic performed the surgery anyway and the results were catastrophic (see second panel below).

Norman decided that he wanted to return to his original face (and stay that way) so he had no more use for Dragovic.  So, in typical Osborn-fashion, he gasses his loyal surgeon with the Goblin Formula.

This turned Dragovic into Goblinized-version of himself and Dragovic remained a loyal Goblinized-lackey...

Dragovic was eventually knocked unconscious by Spider-Man when the web-head attacked Osborn at Castle Karkov.  Dragovic has not been seen since.

16.  War Goblins (aka Goblin Soldiers)
This is probably the most generic entry on the Goblin Roster since we don't know any specific names or even the exact number of people that were exposed to the Goblin Formula that made them in to the War Goblins.  What we do know is that when the War Goblins debuted in the African nation of Nadua, their primary task was to destabilize the country and force their leaders to buy weapons from Norman Osborn's war machine.

However they were not particularly formidable, thus Spidey and Mockingbird had no trouble defeating them.

But when Spidey decided to take the fight directly to Osborn, the original Green Goblin was forced to play his ace...and he began converting his War Goblins in to Goblinized Super Soldiers, so that he could build his Invincible Army of Goblins!

Spider-Man notices the difference between the War Goblins he fought in Nadua and the Goblinized War Goblins he fought in Symkaria.  The Goblin Formula created a more resilient and robust fighting force, which made the web-head's job that much tougher.  Spider-Man would eventually prevail, although it is unknown whether any of the Goblinized War Goblins escaped custody after Osborn was defeated...

Again, we don't know how many War Goblins were dosed with the Goblin Formula but we do know that when they wear a Goblin Mask, underneath lies a that's two layers of Goblin for ya!!

Some things never change...